Scarcity in abundance
Information is freely and abundantly available. Learn to disembed useful information and pass it along appropriately.
Information technology is the medium for the new economy. Learn to be fluent in using a wide range of information technologies.
Local, discrete knowledge events are conditioned by global, pervasive knowledge systems. Develop a critical and historical understanding of large scale systems such as modernity, capitalism, post-colonialism, patriarchy
PLUS SOME MORE ROUGH NOTES, TO BE ORDERED LATER:
Useful overview of educational trends by George Siemens (2002). A Learning Development Model For Today’s Students and Organizations. elearnspace, September 19, 2002. (http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/NewModel.htm). "Essentially, lines that currently establish learning boundaries will be blurred as students move seamlessly from high school to college, or add “knowledge components” to their skill base to advance in their career."
Frank L. Greenagel
quote from above:
"At a moment when higher education has become increasingly convinced that the standard classroom lecture is not a particularly effective way of teaching, how ironic that many of those responsible for e-learning say the ultimate goal is to mimic the classroom experience as much as possible."
There are two dominant learning models which, consciously or not, are employed in IP-based learning systems: Presentation and Programmed.
Presentation models range from streaming audio and video to PowerPoint programs that have been repurposed and sent over platforms such as PlaceWare. This is the traditional learning model, used for centuries. Sometimes called the “information transmission” model, or more skeptically, “the-sage-on-a-stage,” it assumes that most people can learn the content through aural and visual means. At its worst, it is simply a talking head, or a voice-over-a slide show.
The other dominant model, programmed instruction/tutorials is particularly popular for asynchronous learning. Now frequently referred to as “traditional(!) CBT,” most of the courses available on the Internet are based on this model. The developer essentially chops the content into manageable chunks of text (perhaps augmented by audio/video clips and graphics), and lets the trainee work through the screens at his/her own pace. There are frequent questions interspersed with the instruction, and immediate feedback. ...
There are other instructional models that have occasionally been used with IP technologies. The case study, project or simulation models are three of the better ones, but they are rarely employed, presumably because of the development cost and the fact that case studies and projects are not particularly scalable. An excellent example of the use of the project model is Unext.com’s Cardean University course on Promotion and Principles of Marketing. Each unit is structured around a project, which the trainee has to complete (e.g., preparation of a brand marketing plan), and offers readings, data, competitive information, etc.; it encourages interaction by means of e-mail with other students and includes video/audio clips, and rapid feedback from the course’s instructor. [A demonstration course is available at www.cardean.edu
There are also hybrid models in use in higher education and corporate training, which combine e-learning with classroom or lab sessions; my experience suggests these can be particularly productive, assuming the learning model for each part has been carefully thought through. Community colleges have employed IP technologies to make the lecture and lab sessions more intense and better focused, by assuring that students are well-prepared for them, then using e-mail and chat to respond to questions and reinforce the experience.
...On complex topics/judgment issues, people need to get comfortable, to “mess around” with the topic before they can understand it; understanding does not necessarily flow in a linear manner from breaking the task/object into simpler component parts. Learning is often a gradual process that happens through a series of shaping activities, which are not always instructor initiated. This is sometimes called tacit learning. The coaching process recognizes this, and so do many lab courses where we expect student skills will develop over the semester without explicit focus on those skills. Learning communities work; there is a social as well as cognitive dimension to learning. Students transform the information they get from instructors and texts into meaningful knowledge through conversations, arguments, lunches, discussion groups and other real-world activities. “Bull sessions actually do have a lot of value.”
Sharing & collaboration, messaging & chat systems, such as Groove and eRoom, hold exceptional promise for individual/group tutoring, as well as for building learning communities
With those capabilities, developers have the ability to create more effective learning experiences by creating communities of online learners who can share experiences, questions, tentative solutions and generally “noodle” with a task until they’ve solved it.
The idea of a fundamentally transformed economy has been popularized in books such as.Naisbitt's (1982) bestseller Megatrends - "Although we continue to think we live in an industrial society, we have in fact changed to an economy based on the creation and distribution of information." (p. 1)
Examples of cross-disciplinary - Institute for Social and Health Sciences.
Examples of inter-institutional - AIDS organisations Souther Alliance of Critical Psychologists
In the physical and biological sciences Gibbons, Limoges, Nowotny, Schwartzman, Scott & Trow (1994) speak of 'mode two' knowledge production, which is ...
Stehr, N. (1994) argues that knowledge societies....
The information society
Rai, L.P. and Lal K. (2000). Indicators of the Information Revolution. Technology in Society 22(2), 221-235.
What makes for an information poor person, community, organisation, country?
Psychology has never been good at paying attention to issues of poverty. In the new information economy, Wresch (1996) argues, it is important to understand poverty not only in terms of material deprivation, but also as lack of access to information sources. Wresch describes how poor and illiterate job seekers in Namibia are cut off not only from hi-tech sources of information, but also from many of the everyday sources, such as newspapers, that middle class people take for granted. They also cannot draw on most of the formal and informal personal networks to which middle class people have access. To what extent are psychologists aware of their role as information brokers, information portals for what Wresch calls the 'have-nots of the information age'?
International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly (A/RES/56/183:
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/56/a56r183.pdf>) in December 21, 2001 about the World Summ=
it on the Information Society.
ITU press release 8th February 2002
ITU press release 19th February 2002
World Telecommunication Development to Tackle the Challenges posed by the Digital Divide
The forthcoming WebForce Conference scheduled in May 6,7 8th 2002, will propose its voluntary contributions to help bridging the Digital Divide, by submitting concrete and relevant solutions. And puts our experience (since 1995) and our potentials at the service of the organizers of the World summit on the Information Society to be held in Geneva in 2003 and in Tunis in 2005.
"Because the conquest of time and distance are central to Digital Culture, its exploration requires a new geographical frame. Rather than being different registers, the dimensions of "local" and "global" continually collapse into one another" Hall (1998). Africa Connected (First Monday, Vol. 3 No. 11- November 2nd. 1998)
South Africa is currently ranked seventeenth in the world in terms of absolute numbers of hosts recognized by national domains, and has an information technology infrastructure in the finance and retail sectors that is comparable to Europe, in terms of advanced cellular communications and a substantial community of Internet subscribers . This places it in a category with Spain, Denmark, Austria and New Zealand, and clearly distinct from countries which would be described as "developing". The contrast with the rest of Africa is stark. As Table 1 shows, in 1998 South Africa has 95f the continent's hosts and Egypt a further 2Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe (one of the fastest growing sectors on the continent) share a further 1f hosts, while the remaining 2s shared between nineteen countries, all with less than 500 hosts each. Other countries have no recorded connectivity (although this does not necessarily mean that there is no local access to the Internet).
South Africa has more than ten main telephone lines per hundred people, giving a teledensity twenty times higher than the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. The growth of this network is higher than population growth. In addition, there are more than two million cellular subscribers - well over 80f the total in the continent. Along with Kenya and Morocco, South Africa is the principal hub for telecommunications in the continent, and is likely to play the major role in the future expansion of the Internet, and the realization of its possibilities
"An Internet safari offered by Mala Mala, an exclusive private game reserve deep in the eastern lowveld, well captures the circle of representation that links the oldest images of the continent with their repetition via the latest media. This site offers a series of sepia-tinted maps, recalling the explorer discovering the untamed wilderness. First, a click with the mouse brings a map of Africa in the style of the seventeenth century - "Discover the untamed soul of Africa". A further keystroke takes the explorer closer in, with a map of southern Africa that places Mala Mala close to the fifteenth century empire of the Monomatapa while (in the style of the Internet's collapse of time and space) also showing the present-day cities of Pretoria and Johannesburg. The next screen - Mala Mala itself - is accompanied by a quote from Sir Thomas Browne: "we carry within us the wonders we seek without us: there is all Africa and her prodigies in us". Finally, the Web site provides details of how to make a reservation and offers the download of a free screen saver: "why settle for any old screen saver when you can go wild with the sights and sounds of the African bush?" "
Martin Hall is Director of the Multimedia Education Group, a project based at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, that is concerned with developing computer assisted approaches to learning and teaching. An archaeologist by training, he is interested in the meaning of material culture, and the implications of digital technology for theories of materiality. Recent work can be found at http://www.meg.uct.ac.za/martin
E -mail: email@example.com
information overload (see also infover.htm)
The effects of information overload have been identified as stress, loss of job satisfaction, physical ill health & incapacity to act (Edmunds and Morris 2000: 18 – 20). Edmunds, A. And Morris, A. 2000. The Problem of Information Overload in Business Organisations: A review of the Literature. International Journal of Information Management 20. 17 – 28. - learn to 'cope' and to 'therapise', but also scanning, filtering, just-in-time learning/knowledge (Hanka, R. And Fuka, K. 2000. Information Overload and "just-in-time" Knowledge. The Electronic Library 18 (4). 279 – 284.) "We have to learn that we cannot know everything about everything." ( Edmunds and Morris 2000: 24) technological solutions, e.g. filtering the semantic web (auto-organizing) - 'push' (profiling), now somewhat discredited.digital agents. in addition: need better strategies. very interesting example from Sehlapelo (2002) of how comander in an armoured vehicle manages information from up to 6 different radios. information literacy (knowing what you need to know and how to get it). super specialization.
Königer, P. and Janowitz, K. 1995. Drowning in Information, but Thirsty for Knowledge. International Journal of Information Management, 15 (1). 5 – 16.
Information World Review. [Online]. Available WWW: http://www.iwr.co.uk/
South African Journal of Information Management
Vol.3(3/4) December 2001
Information Management Training
Adeline du Toit
South African enterprises today operate in a global market with an increasingly turbulent and volatile environment, and must withstand the competitive pressure from other producers as well as from new alternative technologies and products. In this environment of uncertainty, information and knowledge management offer opportunities for innovative managers to use information as a strategic tool for competitive advantage. The success of enterprises in the 21st century, in an increasingly competitive market place, critically depends on the quality of information which those enterprises apply to their key business processes. One of the fastest growing business sectors in today's economy is the knowledge sector, that is enterprises whose primary product is the knowledge and competence of their employees. For these enterprises, profits are generated through the successful management of their information resources.
To meet this growing need in the career market, the Departments of Business Management and Information Studies at RAU offer a BCom (Information Management) degree from 2002. The degree comprises the equivalent of 27 semester courses that consist of Business Management and Information Science as compulsory major subjects. A further major subject must be chosen from Marketing Management, Economics or Logistics Management. Ancillary subjects include Accounting, Analytical Techniques, Auditing, Business Information Systems, Financial Management and Human Resources Management. The objective of the degree is to prepare students with the necessary skills and expertise to function in the global knowledge economy.
The concepts of a knowledge economy and information capitalism underlies virtually all new information-driven economies and businesses and, in South Africa, enterprises are nowadays prepared to pay for information that will enable them to increase their profit margins and remain ahead of their competitors. As a result, many job opportunities are available for information and knowledge managers in this fast-changing environment. These managers are responsible for the strategic management of information and knowledge resources in enterprises.
RAU also offers an honours degree in Information Management from 2002 – the BCom Honours (Information Management). The entrance requirement is a BCom degree with Business Management as a major subject or any other BCom degree with a major subject with comparable content in Business Management. The primary purpose of this qualification is to provide qualifying students with applied competencies and practical skills in the organization, analysis, interpretation and application of advanced Information Management.
For further details contact Prof. Nic Lessing (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Prof. Adeline du Toit (email@example.com).
Speaking English. (some special cases: China and Russia have managed to increase their ‘net citizens’)
In 2002 the SA Department of Trade and Industry announced its Integrated Manufacturing Strategy (IMS), which "focuses on the new sources of competitiveness in winning nations in the world economy" (Erwin, 2002, p. 10). In addition to the usual nostrums (small business development, export orientation, competitiveness), there is also a strong emphasis on ICT, with ICT and electronic enterprises highlight as one of the key growth areas. "those who need it will receive support from government to place them on a knowledge-intensive, value-added, export-oriented growth trajectory" (p. 10). Irwin, A. (2002). We're talking about a revolution. Sunday Times Business Times, April 21.
Africa produces 2f world's book titles.
Gerald S. Edmonds and Rob Pusch (2002). Creating Shared Knowledge: Instructional Knowledge Management Systems. Educational Technology & Society 5 (1) 2002 ISSN 1436-4522 . http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_1_2002/edmonds.html
firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
following quote from above article:
Information management and knowledge management are two processes that require different ways of thinking. Information management and knowledge management, are often confused with one another. Information management involves the retrieval and movement of information, often contained within documents. Knowledge management, on the other hand, is “the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets” (Santous & Surmacz, 2001). Twonley (2001) defined knowledge management as “the set of processes that create and share knowledge across an organization to optimize the use of judgment in the attainment of mission and goals” (p.1.). Knowledge management focuses on the continued change, growth, and creation of knowledge. It allows organizations to share ideas, documents and information across their enterprise and to link users into a community of shared knowledge regardless of physical location or time constraints. Along with the use of knowledge management comes the creation of a culture that encourages people to view knowledge as something that continually grows and changes, and that provides a means for processing information, as well as the development of an information architecture to help facilitate the process and to manage the documents (Adams, 2001).
Another quote from them:
The current culture of information dissemination in the classroom is organized around a semester and specific groups of students registered in one class. The culture of knowledge management can alter this in that information and student created knowledge is shared across classes and semesters, allowing students to learn from current and past students. Consequently a course history of shared knowledge is created and maintained by the instructional knowledge management system (IKMS). IKMS is the process through which academic departments or colleges generate learning and maintain intellectual and knowledge-based assets associated with courses. Marshall and Rossett (2000) noted that knowledge management systems “are composed of two complimentary parts: one technical, the other social” (p. 26). The technical component seeks to “capture, package, and distribute tangible, documented products” while the social side “enables collaboration, connection, and reflection among system users” (Marshall and Rossett, 2000, p.26). An IKMS is comprised of individuals, information and technology within an instructional environment. It is the interaction of these three components that facilitates the creation and sharing of knowledge (Figure 1).
Section on pedagogy to go here.
These could be seen as the outcome product that students and academics work on.
"Institutional repositories-used in this paper to mean digital collections capturing and preserving the intellectual output of a single or multi-university community-provide a compelling response to two strategic issues facing academic institutions. Such repositories:
- Provide a critical component in reforming the system of scholarly communication-a component that expands access to research, reasserts control over scholarship by the academy, increases competition and reduces the monopoly power of journals, and brings economic relief and heightened relevance to the institutions and libraries that support them; and
- Have the potential to serve as tangible indicators of a university's quality and to demonstrate the scientific, societal, and economic relevance of its research activities, thus increasing the institution's visibility, status, and public value.
Institutional repositories can provide an immediate and valuable complement to the existing scholarly publishing model, while stimulating innovation in a new disaggregated publishing structure that will evolve and improve over time. Further, they build on a growing grassroots faculty practice of self-posting research online. While institutional repositories necessitate that libraries-as their logical administrative proponents-facilitate development of university intellectual property policies, encourage faculty authors to retain the right to self-archive, and broaden both faculty and administration perspectives on these issues, they can be implemented without radically altering the status quo
. Moreover, they can be introduced by reallocating existing resources, usually without extensive technical development. "
" Prepared by Raym Crow, SPARC Senior Consultant, The Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition, Washington, www.arl.org/sparc . The papers is at http://www.arl.org/sparc/IR/ir.html (accessed 8 Aug 2002)
But what about peer review?
More from same source: "While institutional repositories centralize, preserve, and make accessible an institution's intellectual capital, at the same time they will form part of a global system of distributed, interoperable repositories that provides the foundation for a new disaggregated model of scholarly publishing." "The current system of scholarly communication limits, rather than expands, the readership and availability of most scholarly research (while also obscuring its institutional origins)."
"Scholarly communication has been described as comprising four essential components:
These functions need to be served whatever system(s) of scholarly communication exist. " They argue that currently these functions are all aggregated so that the fact that most of the labour is being done for free is disguised. For the 3rd component (awareness) to work repositories must be "interoperable". "Interoperability comprises persistent naming, standardized metadata formats, and a metadata harvesting protocol." Open Archives movement and Open Archives Initiative (OAI). Two current examples of institutional repositories are author self-archiving and discipline-specific repositories. One interesting form of component two (certification) they discuss is "Overlay journals", i.e. "third-party online journals that point to articles and research hosted by one or more repositories" "Regardless of journal type, the basis for assessing the quality of the certification that overlay journals provide differs little from the current journal system: eminent editors, qualified reviewers, rigorous standards, and demonstrated quality."
"In addition to the overlay journals described above, other types of content filters would speed research and improve teaching. For example, personalized alert services, analogous to those now available on proprietary information retrieval services, would operate across distributed open access repositories, notifying a user when new research on a particular user-specified topic is found."
"Defined for our purposes then, an institutional repository is a digital archive of the intellectual product created by the faculty, research staff, and students of an institution and accessible to end users both within and outside of the institution, with few if any barriers to access. In other words, the content of an institutional repository is:
- Registration-establishing the intellectual priority of an idea, concept, or research;
- Certification-certifying the quality of the research and/or the validity of the claimed finding;
- Awareness-ensuring the dissemination and accessibility of research, providing a means by which researchers can become aware of new research; and
- Archiving-preserving the intellectual heritage for future use.
"This material might include student electronic portfolios, classroom teaching materials, the institution's annual reports, video recordings, computer programs, data sets, photographs, and art works"
Must read: Pringle, R. M. (2002). Developing a community of learners: Potentials and possibilities in web mediated discourse. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education [Online serial], 2(2). Available: http://www.citejournal.org/vol2/iss2/currentpractice/article2.cfm
- Institutionally defined;
- Cumulative and perpetual; and
- Open and interoperable. "
"It seems to me that in order to be effective, an online learning community need not be a part of the learner's learning life. Rather, it must be a part of the learner's professional life or social life (preferably both).
Online communities have no substance on their own. That's why they can't simply be created: they must be nurtured. That's why they must incorporate the sorts of values described by Bronwyn Stuckey
. That's why they take so long to develop." Stephen Downes http://www.downes.ca/nw2002/netdaily21.htm
. Networking Daily 21 Aug 2002.
Another nice commentary by Stephen Downes on communities of practice: http://www.downes.ca/nw2002/netdaily29.htm
Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., Schwartzman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M. (1994). The new production of knowledge
. The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies.
Naisbitt, J. (1982). Megatrends: Ten new directions transforming our lives
. New York: Warner Books.
Stehr, N. (1994). Knowledge societies
. London: Sage.
Wresch, W. (1996). Disconnected. Haves and have-nots in the information age
. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.